1.3 Radical

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An atom or group of atoms which bears charge and behaves as single unit during chemical reaction is called radical. Eg. SO4--, Ca++ etc.
Depending on charges present, radicals are classified as below:-

Electropositive Radical (Basic Radical) (Cation):-
These radicals possess positive charge and collect at cathode during electrolysis.
Eg. NH4+, Ca++, Zn++ etc.

Electronegative Radicals (Acid Radical/Anion):-
These radicals possess negative charge and collect at anode during electrolysis.
Eg. SO4--, Cl-, NO3- etc.

Depending on constituent atoms radicals are classified as below:-
i] Simple Radical
This type of radicals contains only one type of atoms that can be one or more than one.
Eg. Pottasium ion (K+), Peroxide Ion (O2-2)

ii] Compound Radical
This type of radical contains different types of atoms.
Eg. Sulphate radical (SO4--), Carbonate radical (CO3--)

iii] Complex Radical
This type of radical forms by the combination of simple radical and compound radical.
Eg. Ferrocyanide (Fe(CN)6]-4

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